1Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
2Environmental Physics, Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, Universitätsstr. 16, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland
3School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Williamson Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
4University of Nova Gorica, Laboratory for Environmental Research, Vipavska 13, Rožna Dolina, 5000 Nova Gorica, Slovenia
5Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA
6Aix-Marseille Université, Université du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM110, 13288, Marseille, Cedex 09, France
7National Marine Fisheries Service, 1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
8LUNAM University, Angers University, UMR CNRS 6112 LPGN-BIAF, Laboratoire des Bio-Indicateurs Actuels et Fossiles, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers CEDEX 01, France
Abstract. We present a summary of biomass data for 11 Plankton Functional Types (PFTs) plus phytoplankton pigment data, compiled as part of the MARine Ecosystem biomass DATa (MAREDAT) initiative. The goal of the MAREDAT initiative is to provide global gridded data products with coverage of all biological components of the global ocean ecosystem. This special issue is the first step towards achieving this. The PFTs presented here include picophytoplankton, diazotrophs, coccolithophores, Phaeocystis, diatoms, picoheterotrophs, microzooplankton, foraminifers, mesozooplankton, pteropods and macrozooplankton. All variables have been gridded onto a World Ocean Atlas (WOA) grid (1° × 1° × 33 vertical levels × monthly climatologies). The data show that (1) the global total heterotrophic biomass (2.0–6.4 Pg C) is at least as high as the total autotrophic biomass (0.5–2.6 Pg C excluding nanophytoplankton and autotrophic dinoflagellates), (2) the biomass of zooplankton calcifiers (0.9–2.3 Pg C) is substantially higher than that of coccolithophores (0.01–0.14 Pg C), (3) patchiness of biomass distribution increases with organism size, and (4) although zooplankton biomass measurements below 200 m are rare, the limited measurements available suggest that Bacteria and Archaea are not the only heterotrophs in the deep sea. More data will be needed to characterize ocean ecosystem functioning and associated biogeochemistry in the Southern Hemisphere and below 200 m.
Microzooplankton database: doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.779970.