PeRL: A Circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database
Sina Muster1, Kurt Roth2, Moritz Langer3, Stephan Lange1, Fabio Cresto Aleina4, Annett Bartsch5, Anne Morgenstern1, Guido Grosse1, Benjamin Jones6, A. Britta K. Sannel7, Ylva Sjöberg7, Frank Günther1, Christian Andresen8, Alexandra Veremeeva9, Prajna R. Lindgren10, Frédéric Bouchard11,13, Mark J. Lara12, Daniel Fortier13, Simon Charbonneau13, Tarmo A. Virtanen14, Gustaf Hugelius7, Juri Palmtag7, Matthias B. Siewert7, William J. Riley15, Charles D. Koven15, and Julia Boike11Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Telegrafenberg A43, 14473 Potsdam, Germany 2Institute for Environmental Physics, Heidelberg University, Germany 3Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany 4Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany 5Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie and Geodynamik, Vienna, Austria 6U.S. Geological Survey – Alaska Science Center, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA 7Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden 8Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA 9Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia 10Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA 11Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS), Centre Eau Terre Environnement (ETE), Québec QC, G1K 9A9, Canada 12Department of Plant Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana – Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA 13Geography Department, University of Montréal, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7, Canada 14Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland 15Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, USA
Received: 15 Nov 2016 – Accepted for review: 17 Nov 2016 – Discussion started: 22 Nov 2016
Abstract. Ponds and lakes are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. They play an important role in Arctic wetland ecosystems by regulating carbon, water, and energy fluxes and providing freshwater habitats. However, ponds, i.e. waterbodies with surface areas smaller than 1.0E+04 m2, have not been inventoried at global and regional scales. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database (PeRL) presents the results of a circum-arctic effort to map ponds and lakes from modern (2002–2013) high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery with a resolution of 5 m or better that resolve waterbodies with a surface area between 1.0E+02 m2 and 1.0E+06 m2. The database also includes historical imagery from 1948 to 1965 with a resolution of 6 m or better. PeRL includes 69 maps covering a wide range of environmental conditions from tundra to boreal regions and from continuous to discontinuous permafrost zones. Waterbody maps are linked to regional permafrost landscape maps which provide information on permafrost extent, ground ice volume, geology and lithology. This paper describes waterbody classification and accuracy, and presents statistics of waterbody distribution for each site. Maps of permafrost landscapes in Alaska, Canada and Russia are used to extrapolate waterbody statistics from the site level to regional landscape units. PeRL presents pond and lake estimates for a total area of 1.4E+06 km2 across the Arctic, about 17 % of the Arctic lowland (< 300 m a.s.l.) land surface area. PeRL waterbodies with sizes of 1.0E+06 m2 down to 1.0E+02 m2 contributed up to 21 % to the total water fraction. Waterbody density ranged from 1.0E+00 per km2 to 9.4E+01 per km2. Ponds are the dominant waterbody type by number in all landscapes with 45 % to 99 % of the total waterbody number. The implementation of PeRL size distributions into land surface models will greatly improve the investigation and projection of surface inundation and carbon fluxes in permafrost lowlands. Waterbody maps, study area boundaries and maps of regional permafrost landscapes including link to detailed metadata are available at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.868349.
Muster, S., Roth, K., Langer, M., Lange, S., Cresto Aleina, F., Bartsch, A., Morgenstern, A., Grosse, G., Jones, B., Sannel, A. B. K., Sjöberg, Y., Günther, F., Andresen, C., Veremeeva, A., Lindgren, P. R., Bouchard, F., Lara, M. J., Fortier, D., Charbonneau, S., Virtanen, T. A., Hugelius, G., Palmtag, J., Siewert, M. B., Riley, W. J., Koven, C. D., and Boike, J.: PeRL: A Circum-Arctic Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database, Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., doi:10.5194/essd-2016-56, in review, 2016.
PeRL: Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database, links to ArcGIS shapefiles
S. Muster, K. Roth, M. Langer, S. Lange, F. Cresto-Aleina, A. Bartsch, A. Morgenstern, G. Grosse, B. Jones, A. B. K. Y. Sjoeberg, F. Günther, C. Andresen, A. Veremeeva, P. R. Lindgren, F. Bouchard, M. J. Lara, D. Fortier, S. Charbonneau, T. A. Virtanen, G. Hugelius, J. Palmtag, M. B. Siewert, W. J. Riley, C. D. Koven, and J. Boike