Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Science Data The Data Publishing Journal
The following lists only discussion papers without a corresponding final revised paper.
20 Jul 2017
The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic Carbon dioxide (CO2), version 2016 (ODIAC2016): A global, monthly fossil-fuel CO2 gridded emission data product for tracer transport simulations and surface flux inversions
Tomohiro Oda, Shamil Maksyutov, and Robert J. Andres
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-76, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
19 Jul 2017
CHASE-PL Climate Projection dataset over Poland – Bias adjustment of EURO-CORDEX simulations
Abdelkader Mezghani, Andreas Dobler, Jan Erik Haugen, Rasmus Eduard Benestad, Kajsa Maria Parding, Mikołaj Piniewski, Ignacy Kardel, and Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-51, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
19 Jul 2017
Vista-LA: Mapping methane emitting infrastructure in the Los Angeles megacity
Valerie Carranza, Talha Rafiq, Isis Frausto-Vicencio, Francesca Hopkins, Kristal R. Verhulst, Preeti Rao, Riley Duren, and Charles Miller
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-65, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
19 Jul 2017
The GIK-Archive of sediment radiography
Hannes Grobe, Kyaw Winn, Friedrich Werner, Amelie Driemel, Stefanie Schumacher, and Rainer Sieger
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-69, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
18 Jul 2017
The National Eutrophication Survey: lake characteristics and historical nutrient concentrations
Joseph Stachelek, Chanse Ford, Dustin Kincaid, Katelyn King, Heather Miller, and Ryan Nagelkirk
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-52, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 1 comment)
17 Jul 2017
Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea 2007–2009
Guðrún Nína Petersen
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-67, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
17 Jul 2017
Strong tidal variations in ice flow observed across the entire Ronne Ice Shelf and adjoining ice streams
Sebastian H. R. Rosier, G. Hilmar Gudmundsson, Matt A. King, Keith W. Nicholls, Keith Makinson, and Hugh F. J. Corr
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-70, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
13 Jul 2017
Regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Raam catchment in the Netherlands
Harm-Jan F. Benninga, Coleen D. U. Carranza, Michiel Pezij, Pim van Santen, Martine J. van der Ploeg, Denie C. M. Augustijn, and Rogier van der Velde
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-50, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
13 Jul 2017
Two databases derived from BGC-Argo float measurements for biogeochemical and bio-optical applications at the global scale
Emanuele Organelli, Marie Barbieux, Hervé Claustre, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Poteau, Annick Bricaud, Emmanuel Boss, Nathan Briggs, Giorgio Dall'Olmo, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Edouard Leymarie, Antoine Mangin, Grigor Obolensky, Christophe Penkerc'h, Louis Prieur, Collin Roesler, Romain Serra, Julia Uitz, and Xiaogang Xing
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-58, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
12 Jul 2017
Evolution of soil and plant parameters on the agricultural Gebesee test site: a database for the set-up and validation of EO-LDAS and other satellite-aided retrieval models
Sina C. Truckenbrodt and Christiane C. Schmullius
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-53, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
12 Jul 2017
The Total Carbon Column Observing Network Site Description for Lauder, New Zealand
David F. Pollard, Vanessa Sherlock, John Robinson, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Brian Connor, and Hisako Shiona
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-60, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
06 Jul 2017
Modulation of glacier ablation by tephra coverage from Eyjafjallajökull and Grimsvötn volcanoes, Iceland: an automated field experiment
Rebecca Möller, Marco Möller, Peter A. Kukla, and Christoph Schneider
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-59, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
30 Jun 2017
Long-term weather, hydrometric, and water chemistry datasets in high-temporal resolution at the La Salle River watershed in Manitoba, Canada
Marcos R. C. Cordeiro, Jason A. Vanrobaeys, and Henry F. Wilson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-57, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
22 Jun 2017
A multi-decadal wind-wave hindcast for the North Sea 1949–2014: coastDat2
Nikolaus Groll and Ralf Weisse
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-36, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
22 Jun 2017
A database of paleoceanographic sediment cores from the North Pacific, 1951–2016
Marisa Borreggine, Sarah E. Myhre, K. Allison S. Mislan, Curtis Deutsch, and Catherine V. Davis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-49, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 3 comments)
21 Jun 2017
Over 10 million seawater temperature records for the United Kingdom Continental Shelf between 1880 and 2014 from 17 Cefas (United Kingdom Government) marine data systems
David Morris, John Pinnegar, David Maxwell, Stephen Dye, Liam Fernand, Stephen Flatman, Oliver Williams, and Stuart Rogers
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-56, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 1 comment)
20 Jun 2017
Cloud property datasets retrieved from AVHRR, MODIS, AATSR and MERIS in the framework of the Cloud_cci project
Martin Stengel, Stefan Stapelberg, Oliver Sus, Cornelia Schlundt, Caroline Poulsen, Gareth Thomas, Matthew Christensen, Cintia Carbajal Henken, Rene Preusker, Jürgen Fischer, Abhay Devasthale, Ulrika Willén, Karl-Göran Karlsson, Gregory R. McGarragh, Simon Proud, Adam C. Povey, Don G. Grainger, Jan Fokke Meirink, Artem Feofilov, Ralf Bennartz, Jedrzej Bojanowski, and Rainer Hollmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-48, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 1 comment)
19 Jun 2017
Volcanic stratospheric sulphur injections and aerosol optical depth from 500 BCE to 1900 CE
Matthew Toohey and Michael Sigl
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-31, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 2 comments)
16 Jun 2017
Speleothem stable isotope reference records for East-Central Europe – Resampling sedimentary proxy records to get evenly spaced time-series with spectral control
István Gábor Hatvani, Zoltán Kern, Szabolcs Leél-Őssy, and Attila Demény
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-44, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
15 Jun 2017
Altimetry, gravimetry, GPS and viscoelastic modelling data for the joint inversion for glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica (ESA STSE Project REGINA)
Ingo Sasgen, Alba Martín-Español, Alexander Horvath, Volker Klemann, Elizabeth J. Petrie, Bert Wouters, Martin Horwath, Roland Pail, Jonathan L. Bamber, Peter J. Clarke, Hannes Konrad, Terry Wilson, and Mark R. Drinkwater
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-46, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
07 Jun 2017
SPREAD: A high-resolution daily gridded precipitation dataset for Spain
Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Santiago Beguería, Miguel Ángel Saz, Luis Alberto Longares, and Martín de Luis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-35, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 2 comments)
07 Jun 2017
Photosynthesis-irradiance parameters of marine phytoplankton: synthesis of a global data set
Heather A. Bouman, Trevor Platt, Martina Doblin, Francisco G. Figueiras, Kristinn Gudmudsson, Hafsteinn G. Gudfinnsson, Bangqin Huang, Anna Hickman, Michael Hiscock, Thomas Jackson, Vivian A. Lutz, Frédéric Mélin, Francisco Rey, Pierre Pepin, Valeria Segura, Gavin H. Tilstone, Virginie van Dongen-Vogels, and Shubha Sathyendranath
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-40, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 2 comments)
06 Jun 2017
Global and regional phosphorus budgets in agricultural systems and their implications for phosphorus-use efficiency
Fei Lun, Junguo Liu, Philippe Ciais, Thomas Nesme, Jinfeng Chang, Rong Wang, Daniel Goll, Jordi Sardans, Josep Peñuelas, and Michael Obersteiner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-41, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 0 comments)
01 Jun 2017
In situ observations of meteorological variables and snowpack distribution at the Izas Experimental Catchment (Spanish Pyrenees): The importance of high quality data in sub-alpine ambients
Jesús Revuelto, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Esteban Alonso-González, Alba Sanmiguel-Vallelado, Francisco Navarro-Serrano, Ibai Rico, and Juan Ignacio López-Moreno
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-43, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 2 comments)
08 May 2017
A 14 year dataset of in situ glacier surface velocities for a tidewater and a land-terminating glacier in Livingston Island, Antarctica
Francisco Machío, Ricardo Rodríguez-Cielos, Francisco Navarro, Javier Lapazaran, and Jaime Otero
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-30, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 2 comments)
02 May 2017
The Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) version 2017: A database for worldwide measured surface energy fluxes
Martin Wild, Atsumu Ohmura, Christoph Schär, Guido Müller, Doris Folini, Matthias Schwarz, Maria Zyta Hakuba, and Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-28, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
20 Apr 2017
Multibeam Bathymetry and CTD-Measurements in two fjord systems in Southeast Greenland
Kristian Kjellerup Kjeldsen, Wilhelm Weinrebe, Jørgen Bendtsen, Anders Anker Bjørk, and Kurt Henrik Kjær
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-29, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 5 comments)
18 Apr 2017
A global satellite environmental data record derived from AMSR-E and AMSR2 microwave earth observations
Jinyang Du, John S. Kimball, Lucas A. Jones, Youngwook Kim, Joseph Glassy, and Jennifer D. Watts
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-27, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: open, 2 comments)
13 Apr 2017
A new phase in the production of quality-controlled sea level data
Graham D. Quartly, Jean-François Legeais, Michaël Ablain, Lionel Zawadzki, M. Joana Fernandes, Sergei Rudenko, Loren Carrère, Pablo Nilo García, Paolo Cipollini, Ole Baltazar Andersen, Jean-Christophe Poisson, Sabrina Mbajon Njiche, Anny Cazenave, and Jérôme Benveniste
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-23, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 3 comments)
13 Apr 2017
Overview of NASA's MODIS and VIIRS Snow-Cover Earth System Data Records
George A. Riggs, Dorothy K. Hall, and Miguel O. Román
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-25, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 6 comments)
05 Apr 2017
Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: An annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling
Guangsheng Chen, Shufen Pan, Daniel J. Hayes, and Hanqin Tian
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-22, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
30 Mar 2017
Global Inventory of Gas Geochemistry Data from Fossil Fuel, Microbial and Biomass Burning Sources, Version 2017
Owen A. Sherwood, Stefan Schwietzke, Victoria A. Arling, and Giuseppe Etiope
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-20, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 2 comments)
28 Feb 2017
The ACER pollen and charcoal database: a global resource to document vegetation and fire response to abrupt climate changes during the last glacial period
Maria Fernanda Sánchez Goñi, Stéphanie Desprat, Anne-Laure Daniau, Franck C. Bassinot, Josué M. Polanco-Martínez, Sandy P. Harrison, Judy R. M. Allen, R. Scott Anderson, Hermann Behling, Raymonde Bonnefille, Francesc Burjachs, José S. Carrión, Rachid Cheddadi, James S. Clark, Nathalie Combourieu-Nebout, Colin J. Courtney-Mustaphi, George H. Debusk, Lydie M. Dupont, Jemma M. Finch, William J. Fletcher, Marco Giardini, Catalina González, William D. Gosling, Laurie D. Grigg, Eric C. Grimm, Ryoma Hayashi, Karin Helmens, Linda E. Heusser, Trevor Hill, Geoffrey Hope, Brian Huntley, Yaeko Igarashi, Tomohisa Irino, Bonnie Jacobs, Gonzalo Jiménez-Moreno, Sayuri Kawai, Peter Kershaw, Fujio Kumon, Ian T. Lawson, Marie-Pierre Ledru, Anne-Marie Lézine, Ping Mei Liew, Donatella Magri, Robert Marchant, Vasiliki Margari, Francis E. Mayle, Merna McKenzie, Patrick Moss, Stefanie Müller, Ulrich C. Müller, Filipa Naughton, Rewi M. Newnham, Tadamichi Oba, Ramón Pérez-Obiol, Roberta Pini, Cesare Ravazzi, Katy H. Roucoux, Stephen M. Rucina, Louis Scott, Hikaru Takahara, Polichronis C. Tzedakis, Dunia H. Urrego, Bas van Geel, B. Guido Valencia, Marcus J. Vandergoes, Annie Vincens, Cathy L. Whitlock, Debra A. Willard, and Masanobu Yamamoto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-4, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 2 comments)
28 Feb 2017
Manure nitrogen production and application in cropland and rangeland during 1860–2014: A 5-minute gridded global data set for Earth system modeling
Bowen Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Chaoqun Lu, Shree R. S. Dangal, Jia Yang, and Shufen Pan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-11, 2017
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 3 comments)
28 Feb 2017
Uncertainty information in climate data records from Earth observation
Christopher J. Merchant, Frank Paul, Thomas Popp, Michael Ablain, Sophie Bontemps, Pierre Defourny, Rainer Hollmann, Thomas Lavergne, Alexandra Laeng, Gerrit de Leeuw, Jonathan Mittaz, Caroline Poulsen, Adam C. Povey, Maximilian Reuter, Shubha Sathyendranath, Stein Sandven, Viktoria F. Sofeiva, and Wolfgang Wagner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-16, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
23 Feb 2017
floodX: Urban flash flood experiments monitored with conventional and alternative sensors
Matthew Moy de Vitry, Simon Dicht, and João P. Leitão
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-7, 2017
Revised manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 8 comments)
23 Feb 2017
A global data set of soil hydraulic properties and sub-grid variability of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves
Carsten Montzka, Michael Herbst, Lutz Weihermüller, Anne Verhoef, and Harry Vereecken
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-13, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
22 Feb 2017
Snow observations in Mount-Lebanon (2011–2016)
Abbas Fayad, Simon Gascoin, Ghaleb Faour, Pascal Fanise, Laurent Drapeau, Janine Somma, Ali Fadel, Ahmad Al Bitar, and Richard Escadafal
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-3, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
13 Feb 2017
A Global Model of Predicted Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) Distribution with Open Source GIS Code and 104 Open Access Layers for use by the global public
Sumithra Sriram and Falk Huettmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-65, 2017
Revised manuscript not accepted (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
13 Feb 2017
Expanding understanding of optical variability in Lake Superior with a four-year dataset
Colleen B. Mouw, Audrey B. Ciochetto, Brice Grunert, and Angela Yu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2017-10, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
12 Jan 2017
Global fire emissions estimates during 1997–2015
Guido R. van der Werf, James T. Randerson, Louis Giglio, Thijs T. van Leeuwen, Yang Chen, Brendan M. Rogers, Mingquan Mu, Margreet J. E. van Marle, Douglas C. Morton, G. James Collatz, Robert J. Yokelson, and Prasad S. Kasibhatla
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-62, 2017
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
23 Dec 2016
High resolution global grids of revised Priestley-Taylor and Hargreaves-Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation
Vassilis G. Aschonitis, Dimitris Papamichail, Kleoniki Demertzi, Nicolo Colombani, Micol Mastrocicco, Andrea Ghirardini, Giuseppe Castaldelli, and Elisa Anna Fano
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-59, 2016
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
07 Dec 2016
New anthropogenic land use estimates for the Holocene; HYDE 3.2
Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arthur Beusen, Jonathan Doelman, and Elke Stehfest
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-58, 2016
Manuscript under review for ESSD (discussion: final response, 3 comments)
13 Sep 2016
Hydrometeorological observations from the rain-to-snow transition zone: a dataset from the Johnston Draw catchment, Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA
Clarissa L. Enslin, Sarah E. Godsey, Danny Marks, Patrick R. Kormos, Mark S. Seyfried, James P. McNamara, and Timothy E. Link
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-44, 2016
Publication in ESSD not foreseen (discussion: closed, 2 comments)
25 Aug 2016
Dynamical Downscaling Data for Studying Climatic Impacts on Hydrology, Permafrost, and Ecosystems in Arctic Alaska
Lei Cai, Vladimir A. Alexeev, Christopher D. Arp, Benjamin M. Jones, Anna Liljedahl, and Anne Gädeke
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-31, 2016
Publication in ESSD not foreseen (discussion: closed, 2 comments)
23 Aug 2016
Understanding the representativeness of FLUXNET for upscaling carbon flux from eddy covariance measurements
Jitendra Kumar, Forrest M. Hoffman, William W. Hargrove, and Nathan Collier
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-36, 2016
Publication in ESSD not foreseen (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
28 Jul 2016
Hydrochemical assessment of Semarang area using multivariate statistics: A sample based dataset
Dasapta Erwin Irawan and Thomas Triadi Putranto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2016-29, 2016
Revised manuscript not accepted (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
23 Jun 2015
A harmonised dataset of greenhouse gas emissions inventories from cities under the EU Covenant of Mayors initiative
A. Iancu, S. Martelli, A. K. Cerutti, G. Janssens-Maenhout, G. Melica, S. Rivas-Calvete, A. Kona, P. Zancanella, and P. Bertoldi
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 8, 461-507, https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-8-461-2015, 2015
Publication in ESSD not foreseen (discussion: closed, 3 comments)
10 Apr 2014
Microzooplankton functional responses in the lab and in the field
S. F. Sailley and E. T. Buitenhuis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 7, 149-167, https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-7-149-2014, 2014
Revised manuscript not accepted (discussion: closed, 6 comments)
28 Feb 2012
Supraglacial dust and debris: geochemical compositions from glaciers in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand
K. A. Casey
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 5, 107-145, https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-5-107-2012, 2012
Revised manuscript not accepted (discussion: closed, 4 comments)
21 Oct 2011
Data recovery of A06 and A07 WOCE cruises
N. M. Fajar, F. F. Pérez, A. Velo, and A. F. Ríos
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 4, 99-122, https://doi.org/10.5194/essdd-4-99-2011, 2011
Revised manuscript not accepted (discussion: closed, 11 comments)
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