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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2018-114
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-2018-114
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

  04 Oct 2018

04 Oct 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Earth System Science Data (ESSD).

Autonomous seawater pCO2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends

Adrienne J. Sutton1, Richard A. Feely1, Stacy Maenner-Jones1, Sylvia Musielwicz1,2, John Osborne1,2, Colin Dietrich1,2, Natalie Monacci3, Jessica Cross1, Randy Bott1, Alex Kozyr4, Andreas J. Andersson5, Nicholas R. Bates6,7, Wei-Jun Cai8, Meghan F. Cronin1, Eric H. De Carlo9, Burke Hales10, Stephan D. Howden11, Charity M. Lee12, Derek P. Manzello13, Michael J. McPhaden1, Melissa Meléndez14,15, John B. Mickett16, Jan A. Newton16, Scott E. Noakes17, Jae Hoon Noh18, Solveig R. Olafsdottir19, Joseph E. Salisbury20, Uwe Send5, Thomas W. Trull21,22,23, Douglas C. Vandemark20, and Robert A. Weller24 Adrienne J. Sutton et al.
  • 1Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 2Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 3Ocean Acidification Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA
  • 4National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
  • 5Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, California, USA
  • 6Bermuda Institute of Ocean Scien ces, St. Georges, Bermuda
  • 7Department of Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK
  • 8University of Delaware, School of Marine Science and Policy, Newark, Delaware, USA
  • 9University of Hawai'i at Manoa, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
  • 10College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA
  • 11Department of Marine Science, University of Southern Mississippi, Stennis Space Center, Mississippi, USA
  • 12Ocean Policy Institute, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Busan, Korea
  • 13Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, Florida, USA
  • 14Department of Earth Sciences and Ocean Processes Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
  • 15Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
  • 16Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  • 17Center for Applied Isotope Studies, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA
  • 18Marine Ecosystem Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Busan, Korea
  • 19Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • 20Ocean Process Analysis Laboratory, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire, USA
  • 21Climate Science Centre, Oceans and Atmosphere, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Hobart, Australia
  • 22Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperat ive Research Centre, Hobart, Australia
  • 23Institute of Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
  • 24Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA

Abstract. Ship-based time series, some now approaching over three decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last two decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here, we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface ocean pCO2 (partial pressure of CO2) time series established between 2004 and 2013, of which 17 also include autonomous pH measurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface ocean carbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), and coral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodology applied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the length of sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significant anthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates for seawater pCO2 and pH range from 8 to 15years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO2 time series, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS) in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, have been deployed longer than the estimated time of trend emergence and, for these, deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3µatmyr−1 and 1.6±0.3µatmyr−1, respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for estimating anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions. Data are available at https://doi.org/10.7289/V5DB8043 and https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/Moorings/ndp097.html.

Adrienne J. Sutton et al.
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Status: open (until 15 Dec 2018)
Status: open (until 15 Dec 2018)
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Adrienne J. Sutton et al.
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Autonomous seawater partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys between 2004 and 2017 (NCEI Accession 0173932) A. J. Sutton, R. A. Feely, S. Maenner-Jones, S. Musielewicz, J. Osborne, C. Dietrich, N. Monacci, J. Cross, R. Bott, and A. Kozyr https://doi.org/10.7289/V5DB8043

Adrienne J. Sutton et al.
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Short summary
Long-term observations are critical records for distinguishing natural cycles from climate change. We present a data set of 40 surface ocean CO2 and pH time series that suggest the time length necessary to detect a trend in seawater CO2 due to uptake of atmospheric CO2 varies from 8 years in the least variable ocean regions to 41 years in the most variable coastal regions. This data set provides a tool to evaluate natural cycles of ocean CO2, with long-term trends emerging as records lengthen.
Long-term observations are critical records for distinguishing natural cycles from climate...
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